IR Sensor

I have come across many IR transmitter and reciever circuits over the internet. They happen to be of a very wide range from a single transistor transmitter to transmitters that will look reali high funda to newbies.The first time i searched for my first circuit for IR sensor i had a tough time. My friend gave me a circuit with a 55 timer and aTSOP to recieve.This is the most popular form of IR sensors used at college level robotics. Here in the city(Chennai) there is a place calle Ritchie street. People over there rig up circuits for you and if you can make their pockets heavy the can just do anything from a LED display to amicrocontroller Kit. now the frist time i go there with my poor 555 timer circuit for IR sensor and esk him to wire it up. I got a blank reply “This circuit will not wotk and do you want to buy my circuit for 600 bucks??? it will work properly!1″… This was pretty much an interesting start for a ‘new to robotics’ (then!!) guy like me. so here is one circuit that is so straight forward that you can hardly question its proper functioning.

A normal led looks like in the picture

led

Now follow the circuit.The circuit is as below

image

Description

FOr thoe who are new well it is like this. The Ir led is just forward biased diode and the reciever is a normal led like looking reciever. In my place i get it if i ask for just “IR reciever”(That looks more or less like a normal LED) .Well the reciever is reverse biased thus the input to PIN 13 of the 7414IC remains “HIGH” thus the output (PIN12) being inverted will be “LOW“. Thus the LED will not golw.

When the reciever recieves IR waves from transmitter the reciever will be forward biased and that will literally ground the supply(not really though). so input to pin13 gets”LOW” and sice the IC is inverting typethe output is “HIGH” and the Led glows.

CRUX

1)At the point above reciever the voltage remains about 2.25v when no IR is recieved thus IC output is low

2)When IR is recieved the volatage just above the point above reciever the voltage goes to 0.23V and thus the IC inverts it and shows up a HIGH and thus the indicator LED in series with the 100 ohms glows only when it recieves IR.

PRECAUTIONS

The other circuit with 555 timer can be asjusted for sunlight and interference .This circuit above will be affected but doin what i say now will help a lot and it has workled satisfactorily in alll conditions for me. just wrap a black tape around both reciever and transmitter and streamline your wave path.This removes most of the interference.

APPLICATIONS

1)This can be used to find obstacles which can be done by makin the IR led and reciever LED facce in the same direction places close to each other.Tracing a white path can also be done this way.
Note:This can be literally put to any use . like i made a fuel flow meter with this concept!!!(water flow cuts the IR when it folws between transmitter and reciever!!)

—Madan

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97 thoughts on “IR Sensor

  1. hi,
    me too a begginer,i have just built this circuit & its not working,the input at pin 13 is always high no matter what the state of ir receiver,i dont know how to check if the ir receiver and ir transmitter is proper or not.also can you please suggest me some books and links to know more about basics of robotics.

  2. Its high because your IR reciever is not working.
    1)Make suer the polarity of the reciever is right
    2)Make sure you’ve not inerchanged IR Led and Reciever(Most begginers do that mistake.

    Get the Links to the books from the “Technical E-Books” tab on this site.

    NOTE:-Don change the resistor values. only these work satisfactorily.

  3. hey is the IR u mentioned is used also in tv remotes an is 7805 an ic then to which pins must the wires be connected andin the IR circuit figure u gave 2 leds and 1 ir receiver why three in the functioning u on ly mentioned transmitter and receiver

  4. The third one is just visible LED (pin 12),so that yit’l glow when it has an obstacle. The other two are each a transmitter (IR Led) and the other IR Reciever (LED type).

  5. hai i have one more doubt…. should the base of BC107 be connected to the 14th pin of 74HC14 and if not where must i connect the base of BC107 . And is the battery 5 volts

  6. wait a min u completely confused me……now in one of the circuits u used BC107 and its base was given to 74HC14 AND NO PIN WAS MENTIONED THERE ……….and in the IR circuit u did not show how and where to connect the motor circuit that is the base of BC107….so how do i combine both the circuits ??????and the battery about which im speaking is the one given in motor circuit now is that 5 volts

  7. its like the circuits are differnt but u may use the same ic’s different pins to connect that part of the circuit. and the BC107 supply can be maintained at 5v or 10v .. anything based on your motor requirement.

    See all the modules in the site have been explained separately for understanding. You can make a full model by combining the simlar things in the circuit. Like 74HC149 contains i think 6 similat schmit triggers. in the above ckt i have used only one of it. so u may employ the rest as a part of the mototr circuit.

    Cheers
    Madan

    • iam confused on 74hc14n part.why dont you post robot images and combine circuit of these both.iwant combined one . it will be easier to understand for me and others too.

  8. hi..
    i’m a beginner ,infact searching for a gud start in robotics.i’m a b-tech 1st year student..
    i took mechanical engr b’coz..my basic interest is in mechatronics..
    i ant some suggestions about how can i proceed ,any books suggested to go with along with my studies.
    and also..i wud like to know…if some one can suggest a place in hyd to get electronic components for projects.
    plz.plz.plz…mail to me at ravikaanth2003@yahoo.com

  9. hai……. can u plzzzz send a complete ckt combining both ir ckt and the motor ckt to my mail im not able to combine them so plz draw the final ckt and send it to my mail

  10. hi madan,i built the ckt,and i am also getting an output of about 2.2V when no ir signal is received,but when i give this o/p as i/p to ic pin no 13 the voltage suddenly drops to 0.3V at pin 13 hence the output at pin 12 is high,i have checked the ic by giving an i/p of 5V at pin 13 using RPS and the o/p is low at pin 12{hence ic is working}.so can you please guide me on it.

    i have been following all the mails from raj,cant you directly give the o/p from pin 12 to the base of the transistor?

  11. that sounds wierd man. ok have u trioed the other Schmit trigger pairs other than 13,12 .. eg use 9 instead of 13 and 8 instead of 12. Pl try this and getback to me.

    —————————————————————-
    “i have been following all the mails from raj,cant you directly give the o/p from pin 12 to the base of the transistor?”
    ——————————————————————-

    and about the above piece… u what do u want to do giving it to the transistor? when the output by itself can drie a LED / act as input with logic one to the microcontroller!!!

  12. hai……. can u plz send a complete ckt combining both ir ckt and the motor ckt to my mail im not able to combine them so plz draw the final ckt and send it to my mail.. The details of robot with IR sensor.. Thanks.. Plz do it soon..

  13. hi madan,
    i am getting the o/p from the hex inverter properly,but now when i give it the transistor base ,it is not able to drive the motor!the transistor is getting heated up!!

  14. hi madan
    can u give some idea about th ir receiver for a modulater ir transmitter at 38 khz

    i thought of jst connecting a filter accross the photo diode
    but things rnt goin the right way
    so thr do help

  15. @yasir mail me yasir

    @Pranav Well ppl have done that connection before but i din recieve the complaints of heating up and not driving. Try using appropriate base resistance to saturate the transistors. And check the current ratings of your motor.

    @snehal yeah 38khz modulator!! you are using a TSOP to recieve which by itself is a band pass filter. once you recieve the signal you must amplify it using LM324 for be detected by the processor.

    @somu mail me at madankumar.t@gmail.com , give a mail asking the same i’l forward it to you.

  16. hai……its my beginer level to microcontrollers…
    can u plzzzz send a complete ckt combining both ir ckt and the motor ckt to my mail im not able to combine them so plz draw the final ckt and send it to my mail.
    i am trying to make a bot, which follows a line(black)…
    could u guide me plzzz….

    ajit.tiwari_engineer@yahoo.co.in

  17. hi madan

    im having a problem with ir ckt using TSOP. frst im not getting the range i need. secondly, the signal to the uc dies up after certain 4-5 pulses. my requirement is to continuously detect ir.
    but its not happenin’.
    plz wld u clear this problem 4 me.
    thnx

  18. no i did not try this ckt.
    im going for TSOP Rx nd anything around 10cm will do.
    actually im only having the problem of not getting continuous pulse at the Rx o/p. plz clear tht for me.

  19. thnx madan
    and i also wanna ask u that whether the range is form Tx to Rx pointing towards each other or the one for the arrangement used in obstacle detection type i.e. reflection from a surface.

  20. i have got many useful info through your site . i m using ir led with LM324N comparator. give me some idea how many o/p can we take through a comparator

  21. LM324. there are four comparators in the same IC. so you may conect four of your IR leds to one IC. But Lm324 and amplifying the change , all turns out tedious. The circuit on this site is the simplest to work with and to change the threshold just put a POT at the IRLed side of the circuit and vary it.

  22. Am using the Ir transmitter receiver circuit for sensing an obstacle.The problem is tat the Sensor does not work for a stationary obstacle as in it senses an obstacle which is suddenly kept in its path but it does not sense the wall as an obstacle.. wat is the prob? advanced thanks for ur help

  23. are you using the circuit in this post or modulated sensor?
    Well what ever it is , can you tell me if the suden introduction of obstacle is working well in one direction better that the other sides?

    Next thing i want to ask is if you move an object accross it does it keep detecting as long as the obstacel is in front or just shows a momentary detection.

    Well all this is only because of the orientation of the reciever/Transmitter. I’l like to know more about your progress in this.
    Do get back.

  24. Thanks for the response Sir. Now to ur questions…
    1.Are you using the circuit in this post or modulated sensor?

    we r using the basic IR transmitter circuit using 555 IC for IR transmitter.

    2.Can you tell me if the suden introduction of obstacle is working well in one direction better that the other sides?

    No.the sudden introduction of obstacle has same response from all the sensors.
    In our Project we have three sensors, one for the front and one each for the sides.
    They all work in the same level.

    3.Next thing i want to ask is if you move an object accross it does it keep detecting as long as the obstacel is in front or just shows a momentary detection?

    Actually when the object is moved across it detects and continues to detect as long as it is there in front of the sensor.

    So my question is how come it is not detecting the static object and only it starts to detect when any obstacle comes suddenly ? and
    Is there any Specific angle we should keep between the Transmitter and receiver?
    Advanced thanks for ur help !!!

  25. Madan can u send me a pic with the scheme of an PCB with IR emittor and IR detector , folowing targets( i.e sumo competition) , the range wil be 10-40 cm , i want tu use TSOP)

  26. hello madan! i’m using pic16f877a and i want my ir sensor to detect an obstacle at 10 cm.pls send me an electrical sketch how to make the sensor.thank u!

  27. hello sir,

    can u plz tell me with which commercial name is the ir receiver available in the market. i got one three pin device which looks like a transistor and has a hemisphere like thing protruding at a side. can u plz send me a circuit diagram employing this three pin device. i’ll be highlt grateful to you

    thanks

  28. @Surabh
    Did you check with the modulating sude if its actaully transmitting a modulated wave?

    @Ingit
    “i got one three pin device which looks like a transistor and has a hemisphere like thing protruding at a side” can u gime the link here

  29. madan i myself wasn’t able to find out the datasheet for that three pin device. however it is used in tv as the receiver for the ir generated by remote.

  30. hey madan
    leave all the old stuff.i have found the ir sensor in market and ur circuit is working excellently.thanks for the circuit.
    now one help i want from u is that, how can i increase the range ie distance between ir tx and ir receiver.
    please help me.

  31. hi madan ,
    searching many website i found u.and read every thing
    im shure u r very helpful person.i know u can help my
    work.
    i’m a beginner in robotics.i want 2 make a car which can
    sense obstacles and moving obstacles like car in safe
    distance.i want 2 make it with ir sensor and steppermotor
    whih sensing obstacles and cars infrnt of my car and find
    the safe path to go ahead.plz send me ir sensor ckt with
    stepper motor driving ckt.plz also give me ur important
    advice.
    then i will be greatful to u.
    my mail add : moon7201536@yahoo.com

  32. hi! i’m working on a ir sensor for my project, but have no idea how to start, which is why i came to your site. How does your IR transmitter circuit look like? Could you email me that circuit as well? thanks!

  33. hi!…..i’m a student from pakistan….i’m a 3rd yr student of Computer engineering….i’ve got a project to b made…its like…we’ve a car which will travel detecting an obsticle. can any one help me with its circuit plz..!!!

    in addition we want that if our car detect an obsticle infront then it will start moving backward and if it also detect and obsticle at backward then it will stop…

    plz help me as i dont understand where to start from!

  34. Thanks madan,
    Can you post a circuit of IR sensor with modulation as it will be effective against external sunlight. Can we use this IR reciever itself for modulated sensors or should we go for TSOP

  35. can u plz send me a circuit, which will detect obstacles (ir) and thereafter
    the micro controller gives a control signal to a stepper motor to tun left and while the ir should continuously keep a track of the obstacle and if obstacle is no more , after a delay it should give a correction signal to the stepper motor to bring it back to the same heading.

    or else please let me know how to go about it.its indeed very urgent.

    thanking you

  36. hi madanji,
    i wonder how to connect the ir TX RX onto my obstacle avoiding car,i mean..that IR gets reflected and the MCU processes to change the motor direction..
    CAN U PLZ help me n send any relevant materials …plz mail me!
    me_anukraman@hotmail.com

  37. hi madan!
    the ir sensor circuit u mentioned, can it be used in micromouse as a looking down on the wall sensor, to detect the presence of wall.


  38. but doin what i say now will help a lot and it has workled satisfactorily in alll conditions for me. just wrap a black tape around both reciever and transmitter and streamline your wave path.This removes most of the interference.

    What do u mean by “streamline your wave” … will modulation help to remove the ambient problem … I think thats not what are you trying to say … as the receiver is just a led and it will react to all IR…

  39. Hi madan..
    i’m a beginner ,infact searching for a gud start in robotics… i am plannin to do a project on robotics so first i would like to learn the basics about these motors, transmitters, and recievers and how u generate the required signals to control the parts… plz give some suggestions about how can i proceed ,any books suggested to go with along with my studies.

  40. hello madan,
    i jus wanna kno wheather all the TSOPs will work alike or do they hav some difference in their working? like will the IR reciver ckt work if i use TSOP 1238 instead of TSOP 1738 ? reply me soon……

  41. I have been using the same circuit but my sensor is just not dripping low. can u tell me what may be the problem

  42. hi madan,
    am using the same tsop receiver for which i’m not getting an ir diode, wher xactly in richie street do i get it… pls rep me soon, its 4 my proj. work

  43. can i directly give the ouput of the inverter to the muc r else the logic gate . wuld the amnt of current given by the inverter output be enough to drive the logic gates r the muc for thier inputs.

  44. hellow sir ,
    i want ir ckt which will able to work on reflection and can give pulse of thing coming towards them both transmitter n receiver.
    reply plz

  45. i have a doubt.v r using TSOP1738and irled.how can v check it is good or not.should 38khz be provided externally to irled.

  46. Thanks for the ckt.It really works but the problem is that under sunlight it completely fails(atleast mine).

    can u please help me to design IR obstacle which works in almost every environment ??

    If possible one with TSOP receiver.I have designed one but its not working.I am not able to give that bursts of 10 cycles and more (acc. to DATASHEET).I am using 555 Timer and no microcontroller is used in my project.

    Please help to to make one using 555 timer and TSOP 1738.

  47. hii,

    i m using d same ciruit but led is continously glowing. i tried many times but every time same prob is thr.. can u tell me wat culd be d prob in desiging or components i m using …

  48. hello,
    can u help me to design a IR transreciever circuit using TSOP 1556 and 555 IC..((with duty cycle 40%)
    i searched thru internet but cudn’t find one…wud be grateful if u cud send one to my mailbox.
    bikos6@yahoo.com

  49. hi madan,i am jus a beginner…i tried a simple ir circuit given in this site can u jus tell me wat actuator i can connect to tat circuit…lik one havin linear motion so that it clicks a camera

  50. hi!
    i’m working on a ir sensor for my project, actually v r using the basic IR transmitter circuit using 555 IC for IR transmitter,i mean using a IR led and a TSOP 1136 receiver..

    when v introduce obstacle v r able to notice some deflection in the readings of the multimeter..but the thing is tat the voltage drop is very small and the change in readings is thr only when the obstacle is made to go across and come back btwn the TX and RX in a oscillating fashion

    Next thing i want to ask is tat i want to send the noted deflection to PC through parallel port for further processing but im not able to get the correct voltage drop..wat should i do…can u help me..i want 2 knw more abt the parallel port connection part….plzzzz help me

  51. hi…
    I have made the above given circuit by you. But in place of 74hc14 ic, I have made the schmitt inverter using 4093. But the led doesnot glow when i place a obstacle in the path of ir emitter. My ir emitter is working properly, as i have seen it glowing in the camera of my cell. Is there any way by which I can assure that my ir detector led is not faulty??? Or what can be the cause of my circuit not working??? Thanking you in anticipation..

  52. hai sir,

    As Iam a beginner please tell us some objective for my final project in related to wireless technology.So that I will be very thankfull to you,As waiting for your reply as soon as u can this is imthiaz signing off..
    Thank you

  53. why are u discouraging TSOP??? i find using tsop more worthy than using simple ir sensors like photodiodes… there might be some reason. please clearify me… [:D]

  54. Hi
    I want to integrate this with a microcontroller based train.

    Will this circuit be able give enough to give a voltage of 5 v for triggering the INTR pin of 8051?

    Please do respond soon.
    Thanks in advance

  55. hey madan can u plz mail me the details of the micro-mouse… i request u to tel me wat all the components i should use… i am very passionate bout building this micro-mouse.. i need complete information about this mice..starting from motors(like which motor would be best suited) till design plz…. i will be waiting for ur reply plz…..

  56. sir i want ckt diagram of inteligent mobil robot.i try to make amobil robot with realy.please send me ckt diagram of it immidiatly.

  57. i am not able to modulate the ir led at 56 khz..

    i actually need the schematic as early as possible..

    awaiting your experience

    thanx in advance

  58. hi sir…
    I m an electronic hobbyist…though of 15 years of age….i wanted a simple ir transmitter receiver circuit like this one…though i used tsop 1738 previously…..i hav a doubt and that is the transmitter and the receiver ir led… are they the same type of led ??? Pls reply….!!!
    Thanks

  59. Can u tell me some shop address i can get these things, it will be of grwat heĺp for me.
    mukundan/shyedhu@yahoo.com

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